GWG on Healthy Settings

We all spend time in a range of different places and it’s clear that they have important influences on our wellbeing. Settings such as schools and workplaces have long been used by health professionals as convenient vehicles for targeting interventions. Understood in this way, settings – together with population groups and health topics or problems – make up the traditional three-dimensional matrix used to organise health promotion programmes, particularly those concerned with encouraging individual behaviour change. However, what’s become known as the settings or settings-based approach moves beyond this fairly mechanistic view, appreciating that the contexts or places in which people live their lives are themselves crucially important in determining health.

The settings approach has developed over more than 30 years to become a key element of health promotion strategy at local, national and international levels. It has its roots within WHO’s Health for All strategy and, more specifically, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which contended that: “health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play and love…Health is created by...ensuring that the society one lives in creates conditions that allow the attainment of health by all its members.” Kickbusch (1996) has commented that the ‘settings approach’ became during the 1990s the starting point for WHO’s lead health promotion programmes, which involved a shift of focus from the deficit model of disease to the health potentials inherent in the social and institutional settings of everyday life.

According to the WHO Health Promotion Glossary, a Setting for Health is “A place or social context in which people engage in daily activities in which environmental, organizational, and personal factors interact to affect their health and wellbeing.” Examples of settings with established initiatives and programmes include schools, universities, hospitals, prisons, sports clubs, sports stadia and cities. There are also what can be seen as emergent settings, for example digital and virtual communities.

Why use the approach? Health is largely determined by social, economic, environmental, organisational and cultural circumstances – which directly impact wellbeing and also have indirect influences through providing more or less supportive contexts within which people make lifestyle choices. Health promotion therefore requires investment in the places in which people live their lives. More specifically, the approach recognises that people’s lives are complex and that the processes of enabling human flourishing and of addressing 21st century health challenges are equally complex. Complexity requires us to embrace holism and emergence, appreciating that the patterns and system-related behaviours relating to these challenges are not predictable, are not linear and cannot be understood through reductionist analysis. This means that the underlying influencing factors and conditions are interrelated and can be most effectively tackled not by ‘single thread’ interventions, but through comprehensive, integrated programmes in the settings of everyday life – where people learn, work, play, love, live and die.

Conceptually, Dooris (2014) has argued that the settings approach is rooted in health promotion values such as equity, partnership, participation and empowerment – and has core overarching characteristics.

  • First, it acknowledges the reality of illness and disease, but goes beyond prevention to embrace ‘salutogenesis’, concerned with what creates and sustains wellbeing and makes people thrive and flourish in in particular contexts and places.

  • Second, it adopts an ecological model. It appreciates that health is determined by a complex interaction of factors operating at different levels; it focuses on the interrelationships between people and place; and it addresses human health within the framework of ecosystem health.

  • Third, it views settings as systems, acknowledging interconnectedness, interdependency and synergy between different components, whilst recognising that each setting is connected to the world around it.

  • Fourth, it adopts an holistic change focus, moving beyond disconnected ad-hoc approaches and instead seeking to embed health by using multiple interconnected interventions.

  • And fifth, it appreciates that most settings do not have health as their main mission or raîson d’être – and it is therefore essential to advocate for health in terms of impact on or outflow from ‘core business’.

Building on this conceptual framework, it can be seen that, following Baric (1993), the settings approach involves understanding and harnessing the multi-dimensional nature of settings – and, within this, the relationship between place and people, between the structural dimension provided by their contexts, facilities, services and programmes, and the human agency within them. By doing this, we are better placed to take a comprehensive approach, as argued by Dooris, Farrier et al (2018):

  • creating healthy, supportive and sustainable environments

  • integrating health into the routine life and core business of settings (whether this is quality of patient care in hospitals; education in universities; or rehabilitation in prisons)

  • contributing to the wellbeing and sustainability of the wider community.

As highlighted by Whitelaw et al (2001), it is, though, important to recognise that the approach is implemented in different ways, due to both divergent interpretations and a pragmatic response to what is possible within particular constraints.

As well as highlighting the challenges to generating evidence of effectiveness for the settings approach, Dooris (2006) has highlighted the confusion between the concept of ‘doing health promotion in the setting’ (largely programmes aimed at modifying individual behaviours within a setting) as opposed to ‘health promoting settings’ (involving multiple interconnected interventions aimed at modifying the conditions of the setting or even the factors or conditions underlying the setting). Poland et al (2009) have addressed this by providing a framework for planning and delivering multiple interventions in settings that are aimed at the whole setting or underlying conditions.

Dooris (2013) has also argued for a joined-up and holistic approach that uses advocacy to connect upwards and address wider determinants of health, whilst proactively connecting within and between settings. Bloch (2014) and Kokko et al (2013) have further explored the importance of connecting between different settings to maximise impact and effectiveness.

The importance of forging links between health and agendas such as equity and sustainability has been emphasised by a number of writers, including Poland and Dooris (2010), Orme and Dooris (2010), Bentley (2007), Davis and Cooke (2007), Baybutt, Dooris and Farrier (2018) and Rice and Hancock (2016). This imperative is further reinforced by the Sustainable Development Goals and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, as made clear by WHO's Shanghai Declaration on Promoting Health within the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2016), which reaffirmed the importance of the approach, arguing that  "Health is created in the settings of everyday life - in the neighbourhoods and communities where people live, love, work, shop and play."


Current chair of the Global Working Group

Michelle Baybutt

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Health Promoting Settings – General

Baríc, L. (1993) The settings approach – implications for policy and strategy. Journal of the Institute of Health Education 31: 17-24.

Bloch, P. et al. (2014) Revitalizing the setting approach – supersettings for sustainable impact in community health promotion. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 11:118.

Dooris, M. (2004) Joining up settings for health: a valuable investment for strategic partnerships? Critical Public Health 14: 37-49.

Dooris, M. (2006) Healthy settings: challenges to generating evidence of effectiveness. Health Promotion International 21: 55-65.

Dooris, M. (2009) Holistic and sustainable health improvement: the contribution of the settings-based approach to health promotion. Perspectives in Public Health 129(1): 29-36.

Dooris, M. (2006) Editorial – Healthy settings: future directions. Promotion & Education XIII (1): 4-6.

Dooris, M. (2012) Settings for promoting health. In: Jones, L. and Douglas, J. (Eds.) Public Health: Building Innovative Practice. London: Sage.

Dooris, M (2013) Bridging the Silos: Towards Healthy and Sustainable Settings for the 21st Century. Health & Place 20: 39-50.

Dooris, M. (2016) Editorial – International perspectives on healthy settings: critical reflections, innovations and new directions. Global Health Promotion 23 (Suppl. 1): 5-7.

Dooris, M. & Hunter, D.  (2007) Organisations and settings for promoting public health. Chapter 4 in C. Lloyd, S. Handsley, J. Douglas, S. Earle & S. Spurr (Eds.) Policy and Practice in Promoting Public Health. London: Sage/Milton Keynes: Open University, pp.95-125

Dooris, M., Wills, J. and Newton, J. (2014) Theorising Healthy Settings: a critical discussion with reference to Healthy Universities. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 42 (Suppl 15): 7–16.

Francescini, M., Rice, M. and Garcia, C. (2010) The Application and Evaluation of an Assets-Based Model in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Experience with the Healthy Settings Approach. In: Health Assets in a Global Context Part 3, 251-267. New York: Springer.

Global Health Promotion (2016) 23i Special Supplement on Approaches to Health-Promoting Settings Around the World.

Grossman, R. & Scala, K. (1993) Health Promotion and Organisational Development: Developing Settings for Health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Kickbusch, I. (1996) Tribute to Aaron Antonovsky – what creates health. Health Promotion International 11: 5-6.

Kickbusch, I. (2003) The contribution of the World Health Organization to a new public health and health promotion. American Journal of Public Health  93: 383-388.

Kokko, S., Green, L. & Kannas, L. (2014) A review of settings-based health promotion with applications to sports clubs. Health Promotion International 2014 29: 494-509.

Newman, L., Baum, F., Javanparast, S., O’Rourke, K. & Carlon, L.  (2015) Addressing social determinants of health inequities through settings: a rapid review. Health Promotion International 30(S2): ii126–ii143.

Poland, B. & Dooris, M. (2010) A green and healthy future: a settings approach to building health, equity and sustainability. Critical Public Health. 20(3): 281-298.

Mittelmark, MB. Sagy, S. Eriksson, M. et al, editors. The Handbook of Salutogenesis [Internet], Sections IV [The Application of Salutogenesis in Everyday Settings] and V [The Application of Salutogenesis in Healthcare Settings. Cham (CH): Springer; 2017.                                                        

Mullen, P., Evans, D., Forster, J., Gottlieb, N., Kreuter, M., Moon, R., O’Rourke, T., Stretcher, V., 1995. Settings as an important dimension in health education/promotion policy, programs and research. Health Education Quarterly 22, 329-345.

Paton, K., Sengupta, S. and Hassan, L. (2005) Settings, systems and organisation development: the Healthy Living and Working Model. Health Promotion International 20: 81-89.

Poland, B. & Dooris, M. (2010) A green and healthy future: a settings approach to building health, equity and sustainability. Critical Public Health. 20(3): 281-298.

Poland, B., Green, L. & Rootman, I. (2000) Settings for Health Promotion: Linking Theory and Practice. London: Sage.

Poland, B., Krupa, G. and McCall, D. (2009) Settings for health promotion: an analytic framework to guide intervention design and implementation. Health Promotion Practice 10(4): 505-16.

St Leger, L. (1997) Health promoting settings: from Ottawa to Jakarta. Health Promotion International 12: 99-101.

Scriven, A. and Hodgins, M. (2012) Health Promotion Settings: Principles and Practice. London: Sage.

Shareck, M. Frohlick, K. & Poland, B. (2013) Reducing social inequities in health through settings-related interventions — a conceptual framework. Global Health Promotion 20(2): 39–52.

Wenzel, E. (1997) A comment on settings in health promotion. Internet Journal of Health Promotion.

Whitelaw, S., Baxendale, A., Bryce, C., Machardy, L., Young, I. & Witney, E. (2001) Settings based health promotion: a review. Health Promotion International 16: 339-353.

Whitehead, D. (2011) Before the cradle and beyond the grave: a lifespan/settings-based framework for health promotion. Journal of Clinical Nursing 20(15/126): 2183-2194.


Ageing and Older People’s Settings

Harris, N. and Grootjans, J. (2006) The potential role of ecological health promotion in progressing healthy ageing. Ageing International, 31: 276-282.

Harris, N. and Grootjans, J., Wenham, K. (2008) Ecological Aging: The Settings Approach in Aged Living and Care Accommodation. Ecohealth 5: 196-204.

Krajic, K., Cichocki, C. & Quehenberger, V. (2015) Health-promoting residential aged care: a pilot project in Austria. Health Promotion International 30(3): 769-781.



Crimeen, A., de Leeuw, E. & Freestone, R. (2019) Towards a health promotion paradigm for airport development, Cities & Health, DOI:10.1080/23748834.2019.1585701



Alliance for Healthy Cities

Barton, H. and Grant, M. (2011) Urban planning for healthy cities: a review of the progress of the European Healthy Cities programme. Journal of Urban Health doi:10.1007/s11524-011-9649-3

Bentley, M. [2007] Healthy Cities, local environmental action and climate change. Health Promotion International 22: 246-253.

Benton-Short, L. and Rennie Short, J. (2013) Cities and Nature (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge.

Berkeley, D. and Springett, J. (2006a) From rhetoric to reality: Barriers faced by Health For All initiatives. Social Science & Medicine, 63: 179–188

Berkeley, D. and Springett, J. (2006b) From rhetoric to reality: A systemic approach to understanding the constraints faced by Health For All initiatives in England. Social Science & Medicine, 63: 2877–2889.

Black, D., Scally, G., Hunt, A. and Orme, J. (2018) We must look further upstream to enable planetary health-literate urban development. Lancet Planetary Health 2(4): e145-e146.

Boonekamp, G et al (1999) Healthy Cities evaluation: the co-ordinators’ perspective. Health Promotion International 14: 103-110.

Costongs, C. and Springett, J. (1997) Joint working and the production of a City Health Plan: the Liverpool experience. Health Promotion International 12: 9-19.

Curtice, L., Springett, J. & Kennedy, A. (2001) Evaluation in urban settings: the challenge of Healthy Cities. In Rootman, I., Goodstadt, M., Hyndman, B., McQueen, D., Potvin, L., Springett, J. and Ziglio, E.(Eds.) Evaluation in Health Promotion: Principles and Perspectives. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

Dooris, M. [1999] Healthy Cities & Local Agenda 21: the UK Experience - Challenges for the New Millennium, in: Health Promotion International 14: 365-375

Dooris, M. & Heritage, Z. (2011) Healthy cities: facilitating the active participation and empowerment of local people. Journal of Urban Health doi:10.1007/s11524-011-9623-0

Green, G. Intersectoral Planning for City Health Development. Journal of Urban Health 89(2): 247-257.

Hall, C., Davies, J.K. and Sherriff, N. (2009) Health in the Urban Environment: a Qualitative Review of the Brighton and Hove WHO Healthy City Program. Journal of Urban Health 87(1): 8-28.

Hancock, T. (2017) Equity, sustainability and governance: key challenges facing 21st century cities (Part 1), Cities & Health, 1:1, 95-99, DOI: 10.1080/23748834.2017.1326232

Hancock, T. (2018): Equity, sustainability and governance: key challenges facing 21st century cities (Part 2), Cities & Health, DOI:10.1080/23748834.2017.1414426

Harpham, T. et al. (2001). Healthy city projects in developing countries: The first evaluation. Health Promotion International 16: 111-125.

Health Promotion International (2009) 24i Special Supplement on European Healthy Cities – Evaluation of Phase III.

Health Promotion International (2015) 30i Special Supplement on European Healthy Cities – Evaluation of Phase V.

Healthy Communities Institute

Journal of Urban Health (2013) 90S1 Special Supplement on European Healthy Cities – Evaluation of Phase IV.

de Leeuw, E. (2011) Do Healthy Cities Work? A Logic of Method for Assessing Impact and Outcome of Healthy Cities. Journal of Urban Health 89(2): 217-231

de Leeuw and Skovgaard (2005) Utility-driven evidence for healthy cities: problems with evidence generation and application. Social Science and Medicine 61:1331–1341.

Meresman, S.,Rice, M. et al (2010) Contributions for Repositioning a Regional Strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): Results of a Pan-American Survey. Journal of Urban Health 87(5): 740-754.

Naylor, C. & Buck, D. (2018) The Role of Cities in Improving Population Health. London: King’s Fund.

Patrick, R., Dooris, M. and Poland, B. (2016) Healthy cities and the transition movement: converging towards ecological well-being? Global Health Promotion 23 (Suppl. 1): 90-93.

Patrick, R. Noy, S. and Henderson-Wilson, C. (2015): Urbanisation, climate change and health equity: how can health promotion contribute? International Journal of Health Promotion and Education DOI: 10.1080/14635240.2015.1057653

Rice, M. and Hancock, T. (2016) Equity, sustainability and governance in urban settings. Global Health Promotion 23 (Suppl. 1): 94-97.

Ross, A. & Petrokofsky, C. (2014) Town & Country Planning Special Issue on Health and Planning.

Town & Country Planning Association (undated) Reuniting Health with Planning [various documents/reports available to download]  

Tsouros, A. (2015) Twenty-seven years of the WHO European Healthy Cities movement: a sustainable movement for change and innovation at the local level Health Promotion International 30 (Suppl 1): i3-i7.

UK Healthy Cities Network 

Wheeler, S. (2013) Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities (2nd Ed.) London: Routledge.

WHO Europe Healthy Cities

WHO (2002) Community Participation in Local Health and Sustainable Development (European sustainable development and health series: 4) (2nd edition). Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe. 


Early Years

Mooney, A., Boddy, J., Statham, J. and Warwick, I. (2008) Approaches to developing health

in early years settings. Health Education 108(2): 163-177.


Further Education / Colleges

Doherty, S. & Dooris, M. (2006) The healthy settings approach: the growing interest within colleges and universities. Education and Health 24: 42-43. London: Institute of Education.

Warwick, I., Statham, J., and Aggleton, P. (2008) Healthy and health promoting colleges - an evidence base. Project Report.


Hospitals and Health Services

Useful Websites

International Health Promoting Hospitals & Health Services Network and WHO Collaborating Centre 

Competence Centre for Health Promotion in Hospitals and Health Care: Ludwig Boltzmann Institute

Centre for Sustainable Healthcare

Canadian Coalition for Green Healthcare

Green Guide for Health Care  

Greening Health Care (Canada)  

Health Promoting Health Services (Scotland)  

Sustainable Development Unit


Groene, O. and Garcia-Barbero, M. (2005) Health Promotion in Hospitals: Evidence and Quality Management. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

Huang, N. Chien, LY & Chiou, ST (2016) Advances in health promotion in Asia-Pacific: promoting health through hospitals. Global Health Promotion 23 (Suppl. 1): 26-34.

Johnson, A. & Baum, F. (2001) Health promoting hospitals: a typology of different organizational approaches to health promotion. Health Promotion International 13: 281-287.

Johnson, A. & Paton, K. (2007) Health Promotion and Health Services: Management for Change. Oxford: OUP.

Lee, C., Chen, M., Powell, M. & Chu, C. (2013) Organisational Change to Health Promoting Hospitals: A Review of the Literature. Springer Science Reviews 1:13–23

de Leeuw, E. (2009) Have the health services reoriented at all? Health Promotion International 24; 105-107.

McHugh, C., Robinson, A. & Chesters, J. (2010) Health promoting health services: a review of the evidence. Health Promotion International 25(2): 230-237.

McKee, M. (2000) Settings 3 – Health promotion in the health care sector. In International Union for Health Promotion and Education The Evidence of Health Promotion Effectiveness. Shaping Public Health in a New Europe. Part Two: Evidence Book. Brussels – Luxembourg: ECSC-EC-EAEC.

Mortimer, F., Isherwood, J, Pearce, M., Kenward, C. & Vaux, E. (2018) Sustainability in quality improvement: redefining value.  Future Healthcare Journal 5:94-97; doi:10.7861/futurehosp.5-2-94.

Mortimer, F., Isherwood, J, Wilkinson, A. & Vaux, E. (2018) Sustainability in quality improvement: measuring impact.  Future Healthcare Journal 5:88-93; doi:10.7861/futurehosp.5-2-88.

NHS Health Scotland (2009) Overview of Health Promoting Health Service  

Pelikan, J., 2007. Health Promoting Hospitals – Assessing developments in the network. Italian Journal of Public Health 4, 261-270.

Pelikan, J., Groene, O. and Svane, J. (2011) The International HPH Network – A short history of two decades of development. Bispebjerg University Hospital, Denmark: WHO Collaborating Centre for Evidence-Based Health Promotion in Hospitals & Health Services.

Watson, M. (2008) Going for gold: the health promoting general practice. Quality in Primary Care 16: 177-185.

Whitehead, D. (2004) The European Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) project: How far on? Health Promotion International 19: 259.

Whitehead, D. (2005) Health Promoting Hospitals: The role and function of nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing 4: 20.

Whitelaw S., Martin C., Kerr A. and Wimbush E. (2006) An evaluation of NHS Health Scotland's Health Promoting Health Service Framework. Health Promotion International 21: 136-144.

Whitelaw S. et al (2011) Developing capacity and achieving sustainable implementation in healthy ‘settings’: insights from NHS Health Scotland’s Health Promoting Health Service project. Health Promotion International 27(1): 127-137

Weisz, U. Haas, W.,Pelikan, J. & Schmied, H. (2011) Sustainable Hospitals: A Socio-Ecological Approach. GAIA 20: 191-98.

World Health Organization (2004) Standards for Health Promotion in Hospital. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

World Health Organization (2007) The International Network of Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services: Integrating health promotion into hospitals and health services: Concept, framework and organization. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. 

World Health Organization & Healthcare Without Harm (2008) Healthy Hospitals, Healthy Planet, Healthy People: Addressing Climate Change in Healthcare Settings: Discussion Paper. Geneva: WHO.



Galea, G., Powis, B. and Tamplin, S. (2000) Healthy islands in the Western Pacific – international settings development. Health Promotion International, 15: 169-178.

World Health Organization (WHO) (1995a) Yanuca Island Declaration. Manila, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.



Whitelaw, S. et al (2016) Libraries as ‘everyday’ settings: the Glasgow MCISS project. Health Promotion International, 32(5): 891–900.



World Health Organization (2004) Healthy Marketplaces in the Western Pacific: Guiding Future Action – Applying a Settings Approach to the Promotion of Health in Marketplaces. Manila: WHO Office for the Western Pacific.



Bellis, M. A., Hughes, K., & Lowey, H. (2002). Healthy nightclubs and recreational substance use: from a harm minimisation to healthy settings approach. Addictive Behaviors, 27(6): 1025-1035.



Watson, M.C. (2010) Public Health issues in prescribing. In: Lymn, J., BowskillL, D., Bath-Hextall, F. and Knaggs, R., The New Prescriber: An Integrated Approach to Medical and Non-medical Prescribing. London: Wiley Blackwell.


Prison and Criminal Justice

Useful Websites

World Health Organisation (Health in Prisons Programme)

World Health Organisation (Prisons and Health)

HM Prison Service (Public Sector Prisons)

Prison Reform Trust

Revolving Doors Agency 


Baybutt, M. and Chemlal, K. (2016) Health Promoting Prisons: Theory to Practice. Global Health Promotion 23 (Suppl. 1): 67-74.

Baybutt, M., Dooris, M. and Farrier, A. (2018) Growing Health in Prison Settings. Health Promotion International. doi: 10.1093/heapro/day037.

Baybutt, M., Hayton, P. & Dooris, M. (2007) Prisons in England and Wales: an important public health opportunity? Chapter in J. Douglas, S. Earle, S., S. Handsley, C. Lloyd & S. Spurr (Eds.) A Reader in Promoting Public Health: Challenge and Controversy. London: Sage/Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Department of Health (2002) Health Promoting Prisons: A Shared Approach. London, DH.

Dixey, R., Nyambe, S., Foster, S., Woodall, J. and Baybutt, M. (2015) Health promoting prisons – An impossibility for women prisoners in Africa? Agenda 29(4): 95-102.

Eadie, D. MacAskill, S., McKell, J. & Baybutt, M. (2012) Barriers and facilitators to a criminal justice tobacco control coordinator: an innovative approach to supporting smoking cessation among offenders. Addictions 107(Suppl. 2): 26-38.

Farrier, A., Baybutt, M. & Dooris, M. (2018) Mental Health and Wellbeing Benefits from a Prisons Horticultural Programme. International Journal of Prisoner Health 15(1): 91-104. doi: 10.1108/IJPH-11-2017-0055.

Fraser, A. (2009) Social justice, public health and the vulnerable: Health in prisons raises key public health issues. Public Health 123: 407–409

Fraser, A., Gatherer, A. & Hayton, P. (2009) Mental health in prisons: great difficulties but are there opportunities? Public Health 123: 410–414

Gatherer, A. (2010)  Prison Health. Perspectives in Public Health 129(6): 249.

Gatherer, A., Moller, L. and Hayton, P. (2005) WHO European Health in Prisons Project after ten years: persistent barriers and achievements. American Journal of Public Health, 95: 1696-1700.

Ginn, S. (2012) Prison environment and health. BMJ 345:e5921 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5921.

Ginn, S. (2012) Elderly prisoners. BMJ 345:e6263 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e6263.

Ginn, S. (2012) Dealing with mental disorder in prisoners. BMJ 345:e7280 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7280.

Ginn, S. (2013) Women prisoners. BMJ 346:e8318 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8318.

HM Inspectorate of Prisons – Expectations: Inspection Criteria

HM Prison Service (2003) Prison Service Order (PSO) 3200 on Health Promotion. London, HM Prison Service.

Jewkes, Y. (2015) The paradox of the ‘green’ prison: Sustaining the environment or sustaining the penal complex? Theoretical Criminology DOI: 10.1177/1362480615576270

McAllum, A. (1995) Healthy prisons: oxymoron or opportunity? Critical Public Health 6:4, 4-15

Møller, L., Stöver, H., Jürgens, R. and Gatherer, A. (2007) Health in Prisons. A WHO Guide to the Essentials in Prison Health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.   

Rutherford, M. & Duggan, S. (2009) Meeting complex health needs in prisons. Public Health 123: 415–418

Smith, C. (2000) ‘Healthy prisons’: A Contradiction in Terms? The Howard Journal 39(4), pp. 339-353

Squires, N. and Strobl, J. (1996) Healthy Prisons: A Vision for the Future. Report of the First International Conference on Healthy Prisons. Liverpool: Department of Public Health, University of Liverpool.

de Viggiani, N. (2006) A new approach to prison public health? Challenging and advancing the agenda for prison health. Critical Public Health 16(4): 307–316.

White, R. & Graham, H. (2015) Greening Justice: Examining the Interfaces of Criminal, Social and Ecological Justice. British Journal of Criminology doi:10.1093/bjc/azu117

Woodall, J (2012) Health Promoting Prisons: an overview and critique of the concept. Prison Service Journal 202, p. 6 – 11.

Woodall, J. (2016) A critical examination of the health promoting prison two decades on. Critical Public Health 26(5): 615-621.

Woodall, J., Dixey, R. & South, J. (2013) Prisoners’ perspectives on the transition from the prison to the community: implications for settings based health promotion. Critical Public Health 23(2): 188–200.

Woodall, J., Dixey, R. & South, J. (2014) Control and choice in English prisons: developing health-promoting prisons. Health Promotion International 29: 474-482.

Woodall, J., de Viggiani, N., Dixey, R. & South, J. (2014) Moving prison health promotion along: towards an integrative framework for action to develop health promotion and tackle the social determinants of health. Criminal Justice Studies 27:1, 114-132.

World Health Organisation (2014) Prisons and Health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. [N.B. specifically chapters 1, 2, and 21]



Useful Websites

International School Health Network 

International Union for Health Promotion and Education (Health Promoting Schools)

Schools for Health in Europe

World Health Organization (School and Youth Health)


Bennett, A., Cunningham, C. & Malloy, C. (2016) An evaluation of factors which can affect the implementation of a health promotion programme under the Schools for Health in Europe framework. Evaluation & Program Planning 57:50-54.

Clift, S. and Bruun Jensen, B (eds.) (2006) The Health Promoting School: International Advances in Theory, Evaluation and Practice. Copenhagen: Danish University of Education Press.

Davis, J. and Cooke, S. (2007) Educating for a healthy, sustainable world: an argument for integrating Health Promoting Schools and Sustainable Schools. Health Promotion International, 22: 346-353.

Denman, S. Moon, A., Parsons, C. & Stears, D. (2002) The Health Promoting School: Policy, Research and Practice. London: Routledge Falmer.

Department of Health (2005) National Healthy School Status: A Guide for Schools. London, DoH.

Deschesnes, M., Martin, C. and Jomphe Hill, A. (2003) Comprehensive approaches to school health promotion: how to achieve broader implementation? Health Promotion International 18: 387-396.

International Union of Health Promotion and Education (undated) Achieving Health Promoting Schools: Guidelines for Promoting Health in Schools. Paris: IUHPE

Keshavarz, N., Nutbeam, D. Rowling, L. and Khavarpour, F. (2010) Schools as social complex adaptive systems: a new way to understand the challenges of introducing the health promoting schools concept. Social Science and Medicine 70:1467-74.

Keshavarz, M., Rowling, L. and Nutbeam, D. (2010) Acknowledging educational perspectives on health promoting schools. Health Education 110(4): 240 – 251Noble, C. and Robson, C. (2005) Editorial: Just how far can healthy schools go? Health Education 105: 161-163.

Kremser, W. (2010) Phases of school health promotion implementation through the lens of complexity theory: lessons from an Austrian case study. Health Promotion International 26(2): 136-147 (doi:10.1093/heapro/daq063 advance access published 20 October 2010).

Langford, R., Bonell, C.P., Jones, H.E., Pouliou, T., Murphy, S.M., Waters, E., Komro, K.A., Gibbs, L.F., Magnus, D., Campbell, R. (2014) The WHO Health Promoting School framework for improving the health and well-being of students and their academic achievement (Review). Cochrane Collaboration.

Langford, R., Bonell, C.P., Jones, H.E., Pouliou, T., Murphy, S.M., Waters, E., Komro, K.A., Gibbs, L.F., Magnus, D., Campbell, R. (2015) The WHO Health Promoting School framework A Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. BMC Public Health 15:130 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1360-y

Lee, A., Ho, M. and Keung, V. (2010) Healthy school as an ecological model for prevention of childhood obesity. Research in Sports Medicine 18(1):49-61.

Moynihan, S., Jourdan, D. & McNamara, P. (2016) An examination of Health Promoting Schools in Ireland. Health Education 116(1): 16-33.

Parsons C. and Stears D. (2002) Evaluating Health Promoting Schools: Steps to Success. Health Education 102: 7-15.

Promotion & Education – International Journal of Health Promotion and Education (2005) Global school health promotion (special issue) XII(3-4).

Public Health England (2015) Promoting children and young people’s emotional health and wellbeing: A whole school and college approach. London: PHE

Rosas (2015) Systems thinking and complexity: considerations for health promoting schools Health Promotion International dav109 DOI:10.1093/heapro/dav109

Rowling, L. and Jeffreys, V. (2006) Capturing complexity: Integrating health and education research to inform health-promoting schools policy and practice. Health Education Research, 21: 705-718.

Safarjan, E., Buijs, G. & de Ruiter, S. (2013) SHE online school manual: 5 steps to a health promoting school. Schools for Health in Europe.

Samdal, O. & Rowling, L. (2013) The Implementation of Health Promoting Schools. Exploring the Theoriews of What, Why and How. London: Routledge.

Schools for Health in Europe (2009) Vilnius Resolution: Better Schools for Health: the Third European Conference on Health Promoting Schools

St Leger, L. and Nutbeam, D. (2000) Settings 1 – effective health promotion in schools. In International Union for Health Promotion and Education The Evidence of Health Promotion Effectiveness. Shaping Public Health in a New Europe. Part Two: Evidence Book. ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels.

St Leger, L., Young, I., Blanchard, C. and Perry, M. (undated) Promoting Health in Schools: From Evidence to Action. Paris: IUHPE. 

St Leger, L., Young, I. and Blanchard, C. (2012) Facilitating Dialogue between the Health and Education Sectors to Advance School Health promotion and Education. Paris: IUHPE. 

Stears, D. (2000) Profiling the health promoting school: valuing assets and evaluating the management of change. Health Education 100: 74-80.

Stewart-Brown, S. (2006) What is the Evidence on School Health Promotion in Improving Health or Preventing Disease and, Specifically, What is the Effectiveness of the Health Promoting Schools Approach? Health Evidence Network Report. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Thomas, M., Rowe, F and Harris, N. (2010) Understanding the factors that characterise school-community partnerships: The case of the Logan Healthy Schools Project. Health Education 110(6):.427 – 444.

Wong, M., Lee, A., Sun, J. et al (2009) A comparative study on resilience level between WHO health promoting schools and other schools among a Chinese population. Health Promotion International 24: 149-155.

Yoshimura, N., Jimba, M., Poudel, K. et al Health promoting schools in urban, semi-urban and rural Lao PDR. Health Promotion International 24: 166-176

Young, I., St Leger, L. & Buijs, G. (2013) School health promotion: evidence for effective action. Background Paper SHE Factsheet. Schools for Health in Europe.


Sports Clubs, Leisure Settings and Stadia

Drygas, W., Ruszkowska, J., Philpott, M., Björkström, O., Parker, M., Ireland, R., Roncalolo, F. and Tenconi, M. (2013) Good practices and health policy analysis in European sports stadia: results from the 'Healthy Stadia' project. Health Promotion International, 28(2):157-65.

European Healthy Stadia Programme/Network

Fredriksson, I., Geidne, S. & Eriksson, C. (2018) Leisure-time youth centres as health-promoting settings: Experiences from multicultural neighbourhoods in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 46(Suppl 20): 72–79

Geidne, S., Quennerstedt, M. and Eriksson, C. (2013) The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 41(3):269-83.

Kokko, S., Kannas, L. & Villberg, J. (2006) The health  promoting sports club in Finland – a challenge for the settings-based approach. Health Promotion International 21(3): 219-229.

Kokko, S., Kannas, L. & Villberg, J. (2009) Health promotion profile of youth sports clubs in Finland: club officials’ and coaches’ perceptions. Health Promotion International 24(1): 26-35.

Kokko, S. (2010) Health promoting sports club : youth sports clubs' health promotion profiles, guidance, and associated coaching practice, in Finland. University ofJyväskylä.

Kokko, S., Green, L. & Kannas, L. (2013) A review of settings-based health promotion with applications to sports clubs. Health Promotion International doi: 10.1093/heapro/dat046.

Ratinckx, L. and Crabb, J. (2005) The Healthy Stadia Toolkit. Developing Sustainable Partnerships for Local Health Improvement Strategies. Preston: Healthy Settings Development Unit, University of Central Lancashire.   

Roncarolo, F., Lanati, N., Philpott, M., Drygas, W., Ruszkowska, J., Ireland, R. and Tenconi, M. (2014) Process evaluation of European ‘Healthy Stadia’ program. Health Promotion International 30(4): 881-890.



Useful Websites

International Health Promoting Universities & Colleges Network

UK Healthy Universities Network


Cawood, J., Dooris, M. and Powell, S. (2010) Healthy Universities: shaping the future. Perspectives in Public Health 130 (6): 259-260.

Doherty, S. & Dooris, M. (2006) The healthy settings approach: the growing interest within colleges and universities. Education and Health 24: 42-43.

Doherty, S., Cawood, J. & Dooris, M. (2011) Applying the whole system settings approach to food within universities. Perspectives in Public Health 131(5): 217-224

Dooris M. (2001) The ‘health promoting university’: a critical exploration of theory and practice. Health Education 101: 51-60.

Dooris, M. & Doherty, S. (2010) Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions – findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study. Health Promotion International 25(1):94-106.

Dooris, M. & Doherty, S. (2010) Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions – findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study. Global Health Promotion 17(3): 6-16.

Dooris, M., Doherty, S., Cawood, J. & Powell, S. (2012) The Healthy Universities Approach: Adding Value to the Higher Education Sector. Chapter in: Scriven, A. and Hodgins, M. Health Promotion Settings: Principles and Practice. London: Sage.

Dooris, M. Doherty, S. & Orme, J. (2016) The Application of Salutogenesis in Universities. In: Mittelmark, MB. Sagy, S. Eriksson, M. et al, editors. The Handbook of Salutogenesis [Internet]. Cham (CH): Springer; 2017. Chapter 23. Available from:

Dooris, M. Farrier, A. Doherty, S. Holt, M. Monk, R. & Powell, S. (2018) The UK Healthy Universities self-review tool: whole system impact, Health Promotion International 32(3): 448–457.

Dooris, M., Farrier, A., Holt, M. and Powell, S. (2019) Whole system approaches to health in higher education: an evaluation of the UK Healthy Universities Network. Health Education 119(4): 246-258

Dooris, M., Powell, S. and Farrier, A. (2019) Conceptualising the ‘whole university’ approach: an international qualitative study. Health Promotion International.

Dooris, M., Wills, J. and Newton, J. (2014) Theorising Healthy Settings: a critical discussion with reference to Healthy Universities. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 42 (Suppl 15): 7–16.

Holt, M. & Powell, S. (2017) Healthy Universities: a guiding framework for universities to examine the distinctive health needs of its own student population.  Perspectives in Public Health 137(1): 53-58.

Kosarchyn, C. (2014) Creating a Framework for a Health Promoting University Virginia Journal, 35(2):7-11., J., Dooris, M. and Wills, J. (2016) Healthy universities: an example of a whole-system health-promoting setting. Global Health Promotion 23 (Suppl. 1): 57-65.

Okanagan Charter: An International Charter for Health Promoting Universities and Colleges. (2015)

Orme, J. & Dooris, M. (2010) Integrating Health and Sustainability: the Higher Education Sector as a timely catalyst. Health Education Research 25(3): 425-437.

Sarmiento, J. (2017) Healthy Universities: mapping health-promotion interventions. Health Education Vol 117 Issue:2 162-175

Stanton, A. et al (2013) Building healthy campus communities: The adaptation of a workplace tool to understand better student wellbeing within higher education settings. Education & Health 31 (3):84-90. 

Suárez-Reyes, M. and Van den Broucke, S. (2016) Implementing the Health Promoting University approach in culturally different contexts: a systematic review. Global Health Promotion 23 (Suppl. 1): 46-56.

Taylor, P., Saheb, R. & Howse, E. (2018) Creating healthier graduates, campuses and communities: Why Australia needs to invest in health promoting universities. Health Promotion Journal of Australia DOI: 10.1002/hpja.175

Tsouros, A., Dowding, G., Thomson, J. & Dooris, M. (eds.) (1998) Health Promoting Universities. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe

Waterworth, C. and Thorpe, A. (2017) Applying the Okanagan Charter in Aotearoa New Zealand. Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Student Services Association 25(1): 49-61.

Xiangyang T., Lan Z., Xueping M., Tao Z., Yuzhen S. & Jagusztyn M. (2003) Beijing health promoting universities: practice and evaluation. Health Promotion International 18: 107-113.



Breuker, G. and Schröer, A. (2000)  Settings 1 – health promotion in the workplace. In International Union for Health Promotion and Education The Evidence of Health Promotion Effectiveness. Shaping Public Health in a New Europe. Part Two: Evidence Book. ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels.

Chu, C et al (2000) Health promoting workplaces – international settings development. Health Promotion International 15: 155-167.

Coffee, M. and Dugdill, L. (2006) Policies alone are not enough: Workplace health development in the public, private and voluntary sectors. Critical Public Health 16(3): 233-243.

Dugdill, L. & Springett, J. (2001) Evaluating health promotion programmes in the workplace. In Rootman, I., Goodstadt, M., Hyndman, B., McQueen, D., Potvin, L., Springett, J. and Ziglio, E.(Eds.) Evaluation in Health Promotion: Principles and Perspectives. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.

Noblet, A. (2003) Building health promoting work settings: identifying the relationship between work characteristics and occupational stress in Australia. Health Promotion International 18(4): 351-359.

Shain, M. & Kramer, D. (2004) Health promotion in the workplace: framing the concept, reviewing the evidence. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 61:643-648

Springett, J. & Dugdill, L. (1999) Health Promotion Programmes and Policies in the Workplace: A New Challenge for Evaluation. Cardiff: Health Promotion Wales (on behalf of WHO Regional Office for Europe).